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2007年text 2  

2010-10-05 16:43:43|  分类: 考研英语阅读 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2007年text 2
For the past several years, the Sunday newspaper supplement Parade has featured a column called “Ask Marilyn.” People are invited to query Marilyn vos Savant, who at age 10 had tested at a mental level of someone about 23 years old; that gave her an IQ of 228 – the highest score ever recorded. IQ tests ask you to complete verbal and visual analogies, to envision paper after it has been folded and cut, and to deduce numerical sequences, among other similar tasks. So it is a bit confusing when vos Savant fields such queries from the average Joe (whose IQ is 100) as, What’s the difference between love and fondness? Or what is the nature of luck and coincidence? It’s not obvious how the capacity to visualize objects and to figure out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions that have eluded some of the best poets and philosophers.
Clearly, intelligence encompasses more than a score on a test. Just what does it mean to be smart? How much of intelligence can be specified, and how much can we learn about it from neurology, genetics, computer science and other fields?
The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ score, even though IQ tests are not given as often as they used to be. The test comes primarily in two forms: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (both come in adult and children’s version). Generally costing several hundred dollars, they are usually given only by psychologists, although variations of them populate bookstores and the World Wide Web. Superhigh scores like vos Savant’s are no longer possible, because scoring is now based on a statistical population distribution among age peers, rather than simply dividing the mental age by the chronological age and multiplying by 100. Other standardized tests, such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), capture the main aspects of IQ tests.
Such standardized tests may not assess all the important elements necessary to succeed in school and in life, argues Robert J. Sternberg. In his article “How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”, Sternberg notes that traditional test best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge, components also critical to problem solving and life success. Moreover, IQ test do not necessarily predict so well once populations or situations change. Research has found that IQ predicted leadership skills when the tests were given under low-stress conditions, but under high-stress conditions, IQ was negatively correlated with leadership – that is, it predicted the opposite. Anyone who has toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters, whether it’s knowing when to guess or what questions to skip.

26. Which of the following may be required in an intelligent test?
[A] Answering philosophical questions.
[B] Folding or cutting paper into different shapes.
[C] Telling the difference between certain concepts.
[D] Choosing words or graphs similar to the given ones.
27. What can be inferred about intelligence testing from Paragraph 3?
[A] People no longer use IQ scores as an indicator of intelligence.
[B] More versions of IQ tests are now available on the Internet.
[C] The test contents and formats for adults and children may be different.(题干问“根据第三段,我们推出智商侧试如何?”对应原文第兰段第二句中括号里的内容“both come in adult and children's version"。)
[D] Scientists have defined the important elements of human intelligence.
28. People nowadays can no longer achieve IQ scores as high as vos Savant’s because
[A] the scores are obtained through different computational procedures.
[B] creativity rather than analytical skills is emphasized now.
[C] vos Savant’s case is an extreme one that will not repeat.
[D] the defining characteristic of IQ tests has changed.
29. We can conclude from the last paragraph that
[A] test scores may not be reliable indicators of one’s ability.
[B] IQ scores and SAT results are highly correlated.
[C] testing involves a lot of guesswork.
[D] traditional test are out of date.
30. What is the author’s attitude towards IQ test?
[A] Supportive.
[B] Skeptical.(题干问“请问作者对于智力侧试的态度?”根据第二段首句,很明显,智力所包含的远远不止测试成绩)
[C] Impartial.
[D] Biased.

在过去的几年,《星期日报》的增刊《漫步》开设了一个名为“询问玛丽琳”的专栏。人们被邀请去询问玛丽琳?沃斯?萨文特,玛丽琳?沃斯?萨文特在10岁时测试的智力水平达到别人23岁时的水平,这使得她的智商高达228――是有记录的最高水平。智商测试要求你完成口头和视觉分析,要求你在纸张被折叠、剪切后想象它的形状,要求你推论数字的顺序,还有其他类似的项目。所以,当沃斯?萨文特面对普通人(智商为100)提出的像“热爱与喜爱之间的区别是什么?”或者“运气与巧合的特征是什么?”这样的问题时,她感到有点困惑。设想物体、判断数字模式的能力如何使一个人能够回答难倒了一些最杰出的诗人和哲学家的问题,这可并不那么显而易见。
毫无疑问,智力包含的不仅仅是一次测试所得的分数。而聪明意味着什么?可以明确显示智力有多少?我们能够从神经学、遗传学、计算机科学以及其他领域了解的智力又有多少?
人类有关智力的定义性术语似乎仍然是智商分数,即使人们并不像以前那样经常进行智商测试。智商测试主要表现为两种形式:斯坦福—比奈特智力衡量表和威斯勒智力衡量表(两种都包含成人和儿童测试类型)。由于这些测试一般要花费几百美元,因此通常只有心理学家才进行这些测试,尽管这些测试的变种存在于书店和环球网上。像沃斯?萨文特得到这样的超高分数也再不可能,因为现在的分数依据的是相同年龄者的统计学群体分布状况,而不是简单地通过实足年龄乘以100来划分智能年龄。其他标准测试,比如学术能力检测以及研究生入学考试,包含了智商测试的主要方面。
罗伯特?杰?斯顿伯格认为,这样的标准测试不可能评估在学校和生活中取得成功所需的所有重要因素。在其名为“智力测试如何明智?”的文章中,斯顿伯格指出,传统的测试最恰当地评估了分析能力和语言表达能力,但没有测量创造性和实际知识,这些也是解决问题和在生活中取得成功的关键因素。而且,一旦种群或环境发生变化,智商测试就不一定预测得那么准确。研究发现,如果在低压力状况下进行智商测试,那么这种测试就可以预测出领导才能,但是,在高压力状况下,智商测试所得的结果与领导才能的关系是否定的,也就是说,它预测的结果是相反的。任何经历过学术能力检测的人都会认为,应试能力也很重要,无论是知道何时应该进行推测,还是知道应该忽略什么问题。

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